English – Speaking Countries Studies
Canada has an area of nearly ten million square kilometers. It is the second largest country in the world surpassed only by Russia and the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. Canada comprises all the North American continent North of the United States, without Alaska, Greenland and small French island of St. Pierre and Miquelon. The Pacific Ocean washed its western coast and the Atlantic Ocean washes its eastern coast. In the north it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean. Canada consist of 10 provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Saskatchewan, and 3 territories: Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory and Nunavut Territory. The capital of Canada is Ottawa, in the province of Ontario. Other large important towns are Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton, Hamilton, Winnipeg and Quebec.
Canada borders in the south on 12 states of the USA. It also has borders on four of the five Great Lakes (Huron, Superior, Erie, Ontario) and the St. Lawrence River.
Canada’s territory is diverse: mountains in the West, plains in the interior and hill in the East. Its territory also contains prairies, badlands, sand dunes, boreal forests, rain forests, tundra, parkland and aspen forests.
Mountains and Arctic area make up 41 per cent of the land. Canada has a number of mountain ranges: the Torngats, Appalachians and Laurentians in the east; the Rocky, Coastal and Mackenzie ranges in the west; Mount St. Elias and Pellee Mountains in the north. Mount Logan is Canada’s taller peak. The Canadian Shield is an area of very ancient rocks, it is a vast horseshoe-shaped region.
Tundra and taiga cover the major part of Canadian landmass. Only 8 per cent of it is cultivated. Its soils are especially rich in the three prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. They make Canada one of the world’s largest exporters of agricultural products. Canada’s main agricultural products are wheat, meal, some kinds of fruit, especially apples, diary products. Forests cover of Canada’s area. That’s why Canada is the world’s largest exporter of wood products. On the stock of wood resources Canada is surpassed only by Russia and Brazil, but it is on the first place in the world on the stock of wood per one citizen. There are 38 national parks in Canada.
Freshwater lakes and rivers comprise almost 8 per cent of Canada’s area. There are some of the largest lakes in the world – Great Bear, Great Slave, Manitoba, Winnipeg around and within Canada’s borders. Della Falls is one of the highest waterfalls in the world. The Nelson, the St. Lawrence and the Mackenzie are the longest rivers in the world. The St. Lawrence River carries ships from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes system. It is some called "The Mother of Canada”. The longest river in Canada is the Mackenzie River. The other river are the Yukon, the Saskatchewan, the Peace, the Churchill. One can see water everywhere: lakes, pools, rivers. They all freeze and stay frozen throughout winter. So there are natural skating rinks everywhere, and most Canadians can skate, and they like to skate. They also like ice-hockey – Canada’s national game.
Steppes occupy the largest part of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. These are often called prairie provinces. The St. Lawrence Lowlands have climate favorable for agriculture as well as suitable soil. It is the economical center of Canada.
Canada is rich natural resources. It is a world’s leader in value of mineral exports and produces and exports many of the minerals needed for modern industrial economies. The metal, machine-building, motor-car and ship-building industries are highly developed. The hydro-electric industry is also highly developed, its main centers are in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. There is a very large hydro-electric station at Niagara Falls.
The population of Canada is over 29 million people. More than 40 per cent of the people came originally from Britain, about 30 per cent from France and 20 per cent from other countries.
The climate of Canada varies from temperate in the South to subarctic and arctic in the North.
The official languages in Canada are English and French.
The flag of Canada is a red, 11 – pointed maple leaf centered on white field; at each side there is a broad, vertical red stripe (from 1965). The national anthem is "O’ Canada”. The national symbols of Canada are Maple leaf and Beaver.
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words and combinations.
- Canada has an area of nearly … sq. km.
- Canada comprises … .
- In the north Canada is bounded by … .
- Canada consists of … and … .
- Canada borders in the on … of the USA.
- Canada’s territory is … .
- The Canadian Shield is an area … .
- Only … per cent of Canadian landscape is cultivated.
- Canada’s main agricultural products are … .
- Forests cover … of Canada’s area.
- On the stock of wood resources Canada is surpassed only by … and … .
- … and … comprise almost 8 per cent of Canada’s area.
- … is one of highest waterfalls in the world.
- The St. Lawrence river carries ships from the … to the … .
- As all the lakes, pools and rivers freeze and stay frozen throughout inter there are … everywhere.
- … occupy the largest part of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.
- There is a very larger hydro-election at … .
- The climate of Canada varies from … to … .
Answer the questions.
1. Which waters wash Canada’s coasts up?
2. What territory does Canada comprise?
3. How can the diversity of Canada be proved?
4. What mountain rangers are there in Canada? What is the highest peak?
5. In which three prairie provinces are soils especially rich?
6. Which part of Canada is favourable for agriculture?
7. How much of Canada’s area do freshwater lakes and river comprise?
8. What is the longest river in Canada? What are the others?
9. What is the highest waterfalls in the world?
10. What is Canada’s national game?
11. Which industries are highly develop in Canada?
12. How many people came to Canada from Britain, France and other countries?
13. What are the official language of Canada?
14. What are the national symbols of Canada?
Choose the right answer.
1. Canada consists of … provinces … territories.
a. 10 and 3
b. 10 and 4
c. 9 and 3
2. Mountains and Arctic area make up … per cent of the land.
3. Forests cover … per cent of Canada’s territory.
4. … is called "The Mother of Canada”
a. the Nelson river
b. the St. Lawrence river
c. the Mackenzie
5. The climate of Canada varies from … to … .
a. temperate and arctic
b. tropical and temperate
c. subtropical and arctic
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