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Лексико-грамматическое пособие по подготовке к ЕНТ
10.07.2015 1041 220 Свинцова Валентина Владимировна

Пояснительная записка.

Объем знаний и умений по английскому языку, ориентированный на общеевропейский стандарт, требует от выпускников довольно обширные и глубокие знания в области лексики и грамматики, высокий уровень владения навыками аудирования, говорения, чтения и письма.
К окончанию 11 класса у учащихся должна сложиться довольно основательная база знаний, умений и навыков в овладении иностранным языком. Для успешной сдачи ЕНТ возникает необходимость в определенных обобщениях, систематизации усвоенного материала, дифференциации лексических и грамматических явлений языка.
Предлагаемый сборник предназначен для более широкого получения знаний страноведческого характера, вопросов, связанных с историей, культурой страны изучаемого языка, содержит глубокий информационный материал по использованию грамматики.

Содержание стр

Phrasal Verbs__________________________________________________________________3
Conditional Sentences ( Условные предложения)____________________________________15
The Infinitive (Инфинитив)______________________________________________________15
The Gerund (Герундий)_________________________________________________________17
The Participle ( Причастие)______________________________________________________17
Оборот «used to»______________________________________________________________19
Passive Voice (Страдательный залог)_____________________________________________19
Future–in–the–Past ( Будущее время в прошлом)____________________________________19
Word Formation (словообразование)______________________________________________21
Страноведение _______________________________________________________________23
Синонимы___________________________________________________________________33
Антонимы___________________________________________________________________34
Идиомы_____________________________________________________________________36
Пословицы___________________________________________________________________38
Оборот «Объектный падеж с инфинитивом».______________________________________40
Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for.__________________________________________40
Оборот «Именительный падеж с инфинитивом».___________________________________40
Тест Вариант 1____________________________________________________42
Тест Вариант 2_____________________________________________________45

Phrasal Verbs.

 

To look

 

1. to look at посмотреть на

Don, t look at me so angrily!

 

2. to look forискать

I am looking for my glasses and I can,t find them.

 

3. to look throughпросмотреть

Look through the newspaper and tell me about the most important sports matches.

 

4. to look afterприсматривать, ухаживать

Who looks after your cat when you go away?

 

5. to look upпосмотреть ( в каком-то источнике)

If you don,t know the word look it up in the dictionary.

 

 

 

To take

 

1. to take after – быть похожим на кого-либо из старших родственников, если речь идет о характере и манерах

Everybody says that I take after my father, but my little brother Paul takes after our mother.

 

2. to take away – убрать, унести ( прочь), увести ( прочь)

If you are not going to eat the cake, take it away.

 

3. to take offснимать, убирать, взлетать( о самолете)

Take your coat and hat off, it’s quite warm in here.

Let’s take the curtains off and wash them.

When is the time for the plane to take off?

 

4. to take back- отнести на место, вернуть

Don’t forget to take the books back to the library.

We made the girl take the dog back to it’s master.

 

5. to take downснимать, записывать( под диктовку)

I hate this picture on the wall up there and I want to take it down.

Would you like to take my telephone number down?

 

To make

 

1.to make upа) сочинять, придумывать b) гримировать, накладывать косметику

to make up oneselfкраситься

Come here, children, and listen to my new story. I’ve just made it up.

They made him up as an old man for the last act of the play.

 

To make up with somebody помириться с кем-либо

They kissed and made it up.

 

 

2.to make outразобраться, понять с трудом

I can’t make out what he is saying.

 

3.to make off – быстро уйти, убежать, сбежать

Where is Jack? – He made off soon after dinner.

 

 

To get

 

1. to get onа) сесть на велосипед, поезд, автобус и т.д.

The boy got on his bike and rode away.

b) делать успехи, двигаться вперед

How is he getting on with his English?

 

2. to get offсойти с велосипеда, поезда, автобуса и т. д.

We got off the train in London.

 

Compare: to get on/ off the bus but to get into/ out off the car

 

3. to get along – уживаться, ладить с кем-то

My dog and my cat get along with each other.

 

4. to get out выйти наружу

Get out of the room now.

5. to get up – подниматься ( с постели)

What time do you get up?

 

6. to get away – удрать, исчезнуть, сбежать

The thieves got away with our money.

 

7. to get overсправиться с чем-то, преодолеть

He can’t get over his illness yet.

 

8. to get down to work/ business – приняться за работу/ за дело

”It’s 11 o’clock.It’s time to get down to work”

 

To turn

 

  1. to turn aroundповернуться, обернуться

Walk along the road and don’t turn around.

 

  1. to turn outоказаться

It turned out that all the children liked the idea of going on a trip.

The comedy turned out to be very funny.

 

3.to turn overперевернуть(ся)

Turn the pancake over, please: I smell it burning.

 

4.to turn upпоявиться, очутиться

Soon after the bell he turned up in the doorway of our classroom.

 

 

5.to turn intoпревратиться

In the winter the water turned into ice.

 

6.to turn inside out вывернуть наизнанку

He turned his sweater inside out to show me the labels.

 

7.to turn upside downперевернуть вверх тормашками(вверх ногами)

Se turned her room upside down looking for her watch.

 

8.to turn upсделать громче

to turn downсделать тише

to turn on включить

to turn offвыключить down.

Please, turn off the radio or at least turn it down.

Turn up the television, I can’t hear anything.

Turn off the light.

 

To rush

 

  1. to rush atнаброситься, накинуться на кого-либо(что-либо)

As soon as he came to the office he rushed at his work: he knew there was no time to lose.

Mel is afraid of bulls because when he was a child a big bull rushed at him.

 

  1. to rush in/ intoторопливо войти, ворваться

Please, don’t rush in without knocking.

The firemen rushed into burning building to save the child.

 

  1. to rush out/offторопливо выйти/уйти прочь

Why did he rush out of the room without saying goodbye?

The children rushed off as soon as the bell went.

 

  1. to rush toброситься, спешно отправить(ся)

We all rushed to the door when the postman arrived.

I’m afraid we’ll have to rush the baby to the doctor, his temperature is too high.

 

To run

 

  1. to run away/ offубегать, удрать

Don’t run away and leave me alone. When I gave him the news, he ran off at once.

оста

2.to run down а) останавливаться ( о механизмах, часах)

The clock has run down and will stop if not wound.

                          b) говорить с пренебрежением

He is always running down his sister.

 

3.to run inзаглянуть, забежать, заехать

Run in and see me this evening.

 

4.to run outа) выбежать

The cage was open and the monkey ran out.

                          b) кончаться, иссякать

The money is running out. My patience has run out.

 

5.to run over – а) переехать, задавить

Be careful! Don’t run over the dog! A small kitten was run over by the train.

                          b) перелиться через край, убежать

I forgot to turn off the tap and the water ran over ( the sink).

 

 

To set

 

  1. to set about ( doing ) smth. – приняться за что-то, начать что-то делать

They set about their work at 9.

He set about writing a letter to his son.

I don’t know how to set about it.

 

  1. to set smb. to smth./ to do smth. – заставить кого-либо приняться за работу

Mother set John to work.

Whom did you set to do this?

 

  1. to set out/ off – a) помещать, выставлять

The milk can was set out.

They set out vegetables for sale.

                                b) отправляться ( в путешествие, экспедицию и т.д.)

They set out/of on their journey late in the afternoon.

Bob set out early the next morning.

Let’s set out before it gets dark.

 

To do

 

1.to do away with smth. – покончить с чем-то

The government has done away with the law.

 

  1. to do outвычистить, хорошенько убрать

I’ll do out the living-room.

 

  1. to do upа) застегивать(ся)

Do up your coat, it’s cold. This dress does up at the back.

                        b) прихорашивать(ся)

Janie did herself up for the party.

 

  1. to do withхотеть, нуждаться(often used with «can»)

I could do with a sandwich, I’m hungry.

 

To hand

 

  1. to hand downпередать( опыт, знания, что-то по наследству)

The skill of making violins was handed down from father to son.

This bracelet has been handed down in our family for two hundred years.

 

  1. to hand inсдать( работу, документ для чтения или проверки)

« It’s time to hand in your works», said the teacher.

When can you hand in your article to the editor?

 

 

  1. to hand outраздать

The teacher handed out colored pencils to the class.

Peter, would you like to hand out the paper plates to all the picnickers?

 

  1. to hand overпередать

« Hand over that knife!» shouted the policeman.

A lot of people hand over sums of money to hospitals and health centres.

 

 

To break

 

  1. to break awayубежать, освободиться

The criminal broke away on the way to the police station.

It’s time to break away from your old habits.

 

  1. to break down – а) ломать(ся), рушить(ся)

The police broke the door down.

My bike has broken down, may I use yours?

b) потерять контроль над собой, раскиснуть

When Lucy failed the exam she broke down and cried.

 

  1. a)to break into – врываться, вламываться

Last night my neighbour’s house was broken into.

b) to break into a run (a smile, laughter, applause, song, tears)неожиданно начать делать что-то

The child looked at the picture and broke into laughter.

At the sight of the broken toy the little girl broke into tears.

 

  1. to break out – разразиться, начаться

What’s the matter?- A fire broke out in the hotel

I don’t know what will happen if panic breaks out at the stadium.

 

To come

 

  1. to come acrossнаталкиваться, натыкаться

I came across a letter from Bruce the other day.

Everyone has come across the sort of problem which seems impossible to solve.

  1. to come down withподхватить болезнь, слечь

He came down with pneumonia.

-          Why was Bob absent from the lesson?

-          Oh, he came down with the flu.

 

  1. to come offсойти, упасть, оторваться

Come off the grass!

She came off her bicycle.

A button came off my coat.

 

  1. to come overнайти ( на человека), произойти

What came over you? Why are you so angry?

I don’t know what came over me but I told her everything.

 

  1. to come roundзаглянуть ненадолго

Is Nell coming round? I could come round if you like.

To see

 

 

  1. to see smb. around( часто) встречаться с кем-то

I’ve seen him around quite a lot recently.

Goodbye, I’ll see you around!

 

  1. to see through sth.or smb. – видеть что-то/кого-то насквозь

You don’t full me. I can see through your tricks!

 

3. to see to sth. or smb.позаботиться о чем-то/ о ком-то

Don’t worry, the house will be cleaned  out, I’ll see to it.

See to it that you are not late for your English class again.

Could you see to my pets while I’m away?

 

  1. to see smb. offпроводить кого-то

My mother always saw me off to school when I was very young.

Will you come to the airport to see me off?

 

To drop

 

  1. to drop in( on smb/ at some place)навестить, зайти, заглянуть( к кому- то/ куда-то)

Let’s drop in on Jim and Mary while we’re in the neighbourhood.

Look who’s just dropped in!

After the game’s over, I may drop in at a small café for a cup of coffee.

 

  1. to drop off – а) выходить, высадить (из машины)

Thanks for the ride, I’ll drop off here.

Drop me off at the corner, and I’ll walk from there.

b) оставить, « забросить» ( вещи) куда-то

I just want to drop the letter off.

I’ll drop my coat off at the cleaner’s on my way to the office.

 

  1. to drop on smb. – а) набрасываться, нападать на кого-либо

Why drop on me? It’s not my fault.

b) наткнуться, натолкнуться на кого-либо, случайно встретить

We dropped on a perfect house after searching for weeks.

I dropped on this old photograph in the back of the drawer.

 

  1. to drop outвыбывать, выходить из чего-то, бросать( школу)

James dropped out of the game at the very beginning.

Who has dropped out of the contest? 

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